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III.B.2.N.d. Temporarily flooded cold-deciduous shrubland - I. Forest 10 I. A n a. Lowland tropical or subtropical...

III.B.2.N.d. Temporarily flooded cold-deciduous shrubland

A.943 Alnus serrulata Temporarily Flooded Shrubland Alliance


Smooth Alder Temporarily Flooded Shrubland Alliance

Alliance Concept



Summary:

This alliance includes temporarily flooded shrub thickets dominated by Alnus serrulata along rivers and streams on rocky shoals and gravel bars. Other common species include Cephalanthus occidentalis, Cornus amomum, Cornus obliqua (= Cornus amomum ssp. obliqua), Cornus foemina, Hypericum prolificum, Lyonia ligustrina, Viburnum nudum, Physocarpus opulifolius, Amorpha fruticosa, Xanthorhiza simplicissima, and others.

Environment:

Stands of this alliance are found along rivers and streams on rocky shoals and gravel bars.

Vegetation:

Stands of this alliance are dominated by Alnus serrulata. Other common species include Cephalanthus occidentalis, Cornus amomum, Cornus obliqua (= Cornus amomum ssp. obliqua), Cornus foemina, Hypericum prolificum, Lyonia ligustrina, Viburnum nudum, Physocarpus opulifolius, Amorpha fruticosa, Xanthorhiza simplicissima, and others. Some herbaceous associates may include Osmunda regalis, Decodon verticillatus, Utricularia spp., Limnobium spongia, Oxypolis rigidior, Chelone glabra, and Cicuta bulbifera.

Dynamics:



Similar Alliances:

Alnus serrulata - Salix sericea - Rhododendron (catawbiense, maximum) Saturated Shrubland Alliance (A.1880) Alnus serrulata Saturated Shrubland Alliance (A.1014) Alnus serrulata Seasonally Flooded Shrubland Alliance (A.994)

Similar Alliance Comments:



Alliance Distribution



Range:

Currently this alliance is defined for the Chesapeake Bay Lowlands, Southern Blue Ridge, Ozarks, Ouachitas, Cumberland Plateau, the southern Alleghenies, and the northern Ridge and Valley. It is possible in the upper West and East Gulf coastal plains. This alliance is found in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Missouri, Louisiana, Maryland, Delaware, New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and possibly Virginia.

Nations:

US

Subnations:

AL, AR, DE, GA, KY, LA, MD, MO, NC, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, VA?, WV

TNC Ecoregions:

32:P, 38:C, 39:C, 40:?, 43:P, 44:P, 49:C, 50:C, 51:C, 52:P, 53:P, 58:C, 59:C, 60:P, 64:P

USFS Ecoregions:

212F:CP, 212G:CP, 221Bd:CCP, 221Ea:CCC, 221Eb:CC?, 221Ef:CCC, 221Eg:CCP, 221Fa:CCC, 221Fb:CCP, 221Ha:CCC, 221Hc:CCC, 221He:CCC, 222E:PP, 231B:CP, 231Cd:CCC, 231Dc:CCC, 231E:CP, 231Ga:CCC, 231Gb:CCC, 231Gc:CCC, 232B:CP, 234Ab:CCC, 255Ac:CCP, 255Ad:CCP, M212Ea:CCP, M212Eb:CCP, M221Aa:CCP, M221Ba:CP?, M221Bd:CP?, M221Cb:CC?, M221Dc:CCC, M221Dd:CCC, M222Ab:CCC, M231Aa:CCC, M231Ab:CCC, M231Ac:CCC, M231Ad:CCC

Federal Lands:

DOD (Fort Benning); NPS (Big South Fork, Blue Ridge Parkway, Great Smoky Mountains, Little River Canyon?, Obed); USFS (Bankhead, Chattahoochee, Daniel Boone, Jefferson, Mark Twain, Nantahala, Ouachita, Ozark, Pisgah, Sumter); USFWS (Cahaba River, Little River)

Alliance Sources



Author(s):

D.J. Allard, mod.

References:

Allard 1990, Ambrose 1990a, Cooper 1963, DuMond 1970, Fike 1999, Hoagland 1998a, Nelson 1986, Newell and Peet 1995, Rodgers 1965, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Smith 1991, Tiner 1985a, Tobe et al. 1992, Wharton 1978

[CEGL003895] Alnus serrulata - Xanthorhiza simplicissima Shrubland


Translated Name:

Smooth Alder - Yellowroot Shrubland

Common Name:

Rocky Bar and Shore (Alder - Yellowroot Type)



Ecological System(s):

South-Central Interior Small Stream and Riparian (CES202.706)

Cumberland Riverscour (CES202.036)



South-Central Interior Large Floodplain (CES202.705)

Status:

Standard

Circumscription Confidence:

2 - Moderate

Concept Author(s):

K.D. Patterson

Element Concept



Global Summary:

This association includes shrublands on rocky or gravelly substrates along narrow river margins in the southeastern Blue Ridge Escarpment gorges, ranging into the Cumberland Plateau. Vegetation composition, density, and height vary with frequency of flooding, substrate, and soil depth. The nominal shrubs are common and characteristic but not always dominant. Other shrubs may include Arundinaria gigantea, Diervilla sessilifolia, Salix nigra, Salix sericea, Rhododendron arborescens, Rhododendron viscosum, Rhododendron maximum, Rhododendron periclymenoides, Kalmia latifolia, Leucothoe fontanesiana, Cornus foemina, Cornus amomum, Physocarpus opulifolius, Itea virginica, and Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides. Arborescent species that occur as tall shrubs (or as occasional trees, less than 10% cover) include Acer rubrum, Carpinus caroliniana, Diospyros virginiana, Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera, Platanus occidentalis, and Tsuga canadensis. Open areas dominated by grasses and forbs include species such as Agrostis perennans, Boykinia aconitifolia, Carex torta, Holcus lanatus (exotic), Lycopus virginicus, Trautvetteria caroliniensis, Houstonia serpyllifolia, Impatiens capensis, Hypericum mutilum, Viola X primulifolia, and Eupatorium fistulosum. Adjacent alluvial forests in the Blue Ridge are dominated by Tsuga canadensis, Liriodendron tulipifera, Betula lenta, and, at lower elevations, below 600 m (2000 feet), Platanus occidentalis and Liquidambar styraciflua.

Environmental Description



USFWS Wetland System:

Riverine

Blue Ridge Parkway Environment:

This association occurs at the edges of small rivers (the Linville River, for example) and high-order streams that are open and rocky enough to allow for full sunlight and the development of a substantial shrub-dominated margin.

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Environment:

In the Smokies, this community only occurs at low elevations (below 2000 feet) along the largest creeks and rivers. The community exists in very narrow bands along the river, often so small as to be unsamplable.

Global Environment:

This association includes shrublands on rocky or gravelly substrates along narrow river margins in the southeastern Blue Ridge Escarpment gorges, ranging into the Cumberland Plateau. Vegetation composition, density, and height vary with frequency of flooding, substrate, and soil depth. The occurrences can be in very narrow bands of 1-2 meters or wider bars of up to 10-20 meters wide adjacent to large creeks and small rivers.

Vegetation Description



Blue Ridge Parkway Vegetation:

Few parkway examples have been documented. Areas studied along the Linville River include a patchy mix of Alnus serrulata, Salix humilis, Xanthorhiza simplicissima, and Physocarpus opulifolius. The herbaceous layer is restricted to crevices in exposed rock and include a mixture of forbs and sedges. Boykinia aconitifolia, Carex torta, Symphyotrichum puniceum, Rhynchospora capitellata, Eupatorium perfoliatum, and Verbesina alternifolia are the most frequent of these species.

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Vegetation:

The vegetation of this association within the park is dominated by the shrub Alnus serrulata at 0.5-2 m tall and the shrub Xanthorhiza simplicissima at below 0.5 m in height. Other shrub and small tree species such as Toxicodendron radicans can also be quite common. The community usually has an overarching canopy of Carpinus caroliniana and various upland species from the adjacent higher ground and a fairly well-developed herbaceous stratum, especially in patches where shrub cover is low.

Global Vegetation:

The nominal shrubs are common and characteristic but not always dominant. Other shrubs may include Arundinaria gigantea, Diervilla sessilifolia, Salix nigra, Salix sericea, Rhododendron arborescens, Rhododendron viscosum, Rhododendron maximum, Rhododendron periclymenoides, Kalmia latifolia, Leucothoe fontanesiana, Cornus foemina, Cornus amomum, Physocarpus opulifolius, Itea virginica, and Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides. Arborescent species that occur as tall shrubs (or as occasional trees, less than 10% cover) include Acer rubrum, Carpinus caroliniana, Diospyros virginiana, Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera, Platanus occidentalis, and Tsuga canadensis. Open areas dominated by grasses and forbs include species such as Agrostis perennans, Boykinia aconitifolia, Carex torta, Holcus lanatus (exotic), Lycopus virginicus, Trautvetteria caroliniensis, Houstonia serpyllifolia, Impatiens capensis, Hypericum mutilum, Viola X primulifolia, and Eupatorium fistulosum. Adjacent alluvial forests in the Blue Ridge are dominated by Tsuga canadensis, Liriodendron tulipifera, Betula lenta, and, at lower elevations, below 600 m (2000 feet), Platanus occidentalis and Liquidambar styraciflua.

Global Dynamics:



Great Smoky Mountains National Park Floristic Composition



Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Tsuga canadensis Tall shrub/sapling Needle-leaved tree . X .

Alnus serrulata Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved deciduous tree X X .

Carpinus caroliniana Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved deciduous tree . X .

Diospyros virginiana Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved deciduous tree . X .

Liquidambar styraciflua Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved deciduous tree . X .

Liriodendron tulipifera Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved deciduous tree . X .

Platanus occidentalis Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved deciduous tree . X .

Leucothoe fontanesiana Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved evergreen shrub . X .

Xanthorhiza simplicissima Tall shrub/sapling Semi-shrub . X .

Xanthorhiza simplicissima Short shrub/sapling Semi-shrub X . .

Global Floristic Composition



Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Tsuga canadensis Tall shrub/sapling Needle-leaved tree . X .

Alnus serrulata Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved deciduous tree X X .

Carpinus caroliniana Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved deciduous tree . X .

Diospyros virginiana Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved deciduous tree . X .

Liquidambar styraciflua Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved deciduous tree . X .

Liriodendron tulipifera Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved deciduous tree . X .

Platanus occidentalis Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved deciduous tree . X .

Leucothoe fontanesiana Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved evergreen shrub . X .

Xanthorhiza simplicissima Short shrub/sapling Semi-shrub X X .

Higher Taxon Note

Species Name GRank Animal Note (specify Rare (geog area), Invasive, Animal, or Other)

Global Other Noteworthy Species



Species Name GRank Animal Note (specify Rare (geog area), Invasive, Animal, or Other)

Diervilla rivularis G3 P

Spiraea virginiana G2 P

Conservation Status Rank



Global Rank & Reasons:

G3G4 (17-Dec-1999). This community is naturally restricted in terms of geography and habitat, thus could be vulnerable to elimination. However, this community is often overlooked in inventories or not separately distinguished, and is likely much more common than the number of documented occurrences suggests. Threats to this community include alteration of the natural flooding regime due to damming of rivers and invasion by exotic species carried on river courses.

Related Concepts



Global Similar Associations:



Global Related Concepts:



  • Alnus/Xanthorhiza rocky stream margin (Newell and Peet 1995) ?

  • IIE3a. Riverside Shoal and Stream Bar Complex (Allard 1990) B

  • Rocky Bar And Shore (Alder-Yellowwood Subtype) (Schafale 1998b) ?

Classification & Other Comments



Global Classification Comments:

This association is known from the Bankhead National Forest, but further inventory is needed to fully describe the variation of this type on the Bankhead and elsewhere in the Cumberland Plateau.

Element Distribution



Blue Ridge Parkway Range:

This association is restricted to areas where the parkway crosses major rivers or high-order streams.

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Range:

This association was only sampled on one small section of Abrams Creek in the Calderwood quadrangle. It most likely exists along other stretches of Abrams and the Little Pigeon rivers on the Tennessee side of the park.

Global Range:

This association is found along montane rivers in the southeastern Blue Ridge Escarpment gorges and in the Cumberland Plateau of Kentucky south to Alabama.

Nations:

US

States/Provinces:

AL, GA, KY, NC, SC, TN

TNC Ecoregions:

50:C, 51:C, 52:P

TNC Ecoregion Comments:

ECO52 added per REE and MPS (RW 11-02).

USFS Ecoregions:

221Ha:CCC, 221Hc:CCC, 221He:CCC, 231Cd:CCC, M221Dc:CCC, M221Dd:CCC

Federal Lands:

NPS (Big South Fork, Blue Ridge Parkway, Chickamauga-Chattanooga?, Great Smoky Mountains, Little River Canyon?, Obed); USFS (Bankhead, Chattahoochee, Daniel Boone, Nantahala, Pisgah, Sumter)

Element Sources


Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area Description Author(s):

C.W. Nordman

Blue Ridge Parkway Description Author(s):

T. Govus

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Description Author(s):

K.D. Patterson, MOD. R. White

Little River Canyon National Preserve Description Author(s):

R. White

Obed Wild and Scenic River Description Author(s):

C.W. Nordman

Global Description Author(s):

R. White

References

(enter Reference Code when known, otherwise, enter Short Citation; enter full citation if reference is new)

Reference (*=concept ref) name classif related char rank eospec eorank manage image

Allard 1990 . . X X . . . . .

NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern U.S. unpubl. data . . . X . . . . .

Nelson 1986 . X . X . . . . .

Newell and Peet 1995 . X X X . . . . .

Peet et al. unpubl. data 2002 . . . X . . . . .

Schafale 1998b . . X X . . . . .

Schafale 2002 . . . . . . . . .

Schafale and Weakley 1990 . X . X . . . . .

Schotz pers. comm. . . . . . . . . .

Southeastern Ecology Working Group n.d.* X° . . . . . . . .

TDNH unpubl. data . . . . . . . . .


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